The FMLN was formed as an umbrella guerrilla group on the 10th of October 1980, merging five leftist guerrilla organisations. The FMLN was one of the most active and most influential belligerents of the Salvadorian Civil War. In 1992, the FMLN transitioned into a left-wing political party after the signing of the Chapultepec Peace Accords. The FMLN remains one of the main political parties in El Salvador.
The FMLN’s most significant military offensive took place in November 1989, where its guerrilla fighters entered the capital of the country (San Salvador) and fought in poor neighbourhoods, as well as important buildings. This military offensive is often considered to be the main turning point of the Salvadorian Civil War as it exemplified the weakness of the national forces in fighting the FMLN. In fact, this offensive led to official negotiations between the US-backed Salvadorian government and the FMLN, which eventually led to the 1992 agreement aforementioned.
The FMLN fought with children, adults, and the elderly, both male and female. The insurgency specialised in mountainous and forestial combat. Moreover, the UN has estimated that the FMLN guerrillas were responsible for 5% of the civilian murders during the civil war.
From an ideological perspective, the FMNL is a left-wing nationalist/populist political party. Its current slogan is “We do more for the people”. During the group’s guerrilla days, however, the insurgency was Marxist-Leninist.
As aforementioned, the FMLN was formed by merging five leftist guerrilla groups. These groups were the Fuerzas Populares de Liberación Farabundo Martí (FPL), the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), the Resistencia Nacional (RN), the Partido Comunista Salvadoreño (PCS), and the Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores Centroamericanos (PRTC).
In March 2009, Mauricio Funes (the FMLN candidate) won the presidential elections in the country. The same year, the FMLN obtained the majority of mayoralties in the municipal and legislative elections of El Salvador. Nonetheless, the FMLN has lost some credibility recently as Funes is now prosecuted by the Salvadorian authorities for corruption, money laundering, and enrichment by the Supreme Court.
NOTE: This article will be updated soon.