Charlie researches and writes about gangs, cults, nationalism, conspiracy culture and ideological violence. He has a BA in International Relations (with Middle East Studies) from the University of Sussex. Charlie's specialisations include the study of violent non-state actors, marginalised groups, Kurdish history and politics, anarcholibertarianism, and Islamic philosophy and society.
Since 2015, Charlie has written professionally about emerging technologies, Web3 and DAOs, and edited a number of online publications. When he's not busy reading endless Wikipedia articles, Charlie is watching YouTube, playing with his ferrets, or thinking about aliens. He is based in London.